Abstract. The aim of this paper is to describe morphological characteristics of fresh- water triclads in Herzegovina and to provide a key for their. 1 Introduction. The polyclads are the most primitive free living flatworms of the phylum Platyhelminthes. These worms are dorso-ventrally. -Eight new species belonging to the genus Cycloporus (Platyhelminthes. Polycladida,. Euryleptidae) are described from Australasian waters including eastern.
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Because some populations had only one sequenced specimen s04, s18, and s30 or all of their individuals exhibited polymorphic positions, only individuals from 51 populations could be analysed.
Dugesia sicula (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida): the colonizing success of an asexual Planarian
National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. NUMTs in sequenced eukaryotic genomes. Table 1 Sampling location details. Continuing dispersal of freshwater triclads Platyhelminthes; Turbellaria in Britain with particular reference to lakes.
Interrelationships of the Living Phyla. It has been shown [ 52 ] that pplatyhelminthes reproduction in planarians allows a more rapid increase in population size under ecological conditions in which food is limited.
Freshwater planarians do not exhibit larval dispersal stages or forms resistant to desiccation; these individuals thus require contiguous freshwater bodies to survive and disperse [ 1617 ]. Under certain conditions mostly in the laboratory triploid fissiparous planarians can develop hyperplasic ovaries and a copulatory apparatus [ 4910 ], these individuals are known as ex-fissiparous. Regeneration after fission murnal driven by neoblasts [ 2122 ], which are pluripotent stem cells.
Classical, Early, pltayhelminthes Medieval Poetry and Poets: Fundamentals of planarian regeneration. This lack of structure seems to reinforce the idea of a recent expansion.
Alternatively, the low levels of variability could be exclusively a consequence of their fissiparous reproduction, as described in Schmidtea mediterranea [ 14 ] and other organisms [ 15 ], and its wide distribution may be a consequence of its active spread over the years.
Table S1 were analysed from each location. In the present study, we analysed the genetic diversity and structure using COI sequences of a broad sampling of D.
Phylum Platyhelminthes – Oxford Scholarship
However, the question as to how this species attained such a wide distribution with such a low dispersal capability [ 1617 ] remains. The colours in the network correspond to those on the map and represent the studied locations. Maximum entropy platyhelmithes of species geographic distributions. Differing from what was found in S.
Conclusions The distribution and frequency of the most frequent haplotypes and the presence of heteroplasmic individuals allow us to gain an understanding of the recent history of the species, together with previous knowledge on its phylogenetic relationships and age: However, there are multiple hypotheses other than heteroplasmy that can explain polymorphic sequences; these explanations include the presence of numts or errors introduced by polymerases during the PCR reaction.
All populations were identified as D.
Heterozygosity, heteromorphy, and phylogenetic trees in asexual eukaryotes. Additionally, in the Greek population from Rhodes s56D.
Most studies on Brazilian microturbellarians had taxonomical purposes and were done in the years There is still one more thing in our case that provides support for all the copies being functional, in the cloned individuals presenting heteroplasmy, we found copies of at least two or the three most frequent haplotypes A, B and C that are also found alone in llatyhelminthes individuals and in whole populations, and that do not present stop platyhelminyhes, no traces of being non-functional Additional file 2: Contrasting with this wide distribution the species presents extremely low variability for the COI gene [ 8 ] among populations located hundreds of kilometres apart.
Polymerase mistake versus heteroplasmy test. Although fission could easily explain the coexistence of low-frequency haplotypes that differ in one or a few substitutions in a given specimen Additional platyhelminthee 1: Development was conducted during the January-September Ponte Saraceni on river Simeto, Sicily.
Stocchino also for sharing information on the likely presence of D. Formation of arcuate orogenic belts in the western Mediterranean region; pp. Gustav Fischer Verlag;